Due to the high spectral dimensionality of hyperspectral images as well as the difficult and time-consuming process of collecting sufficient labeled samples in practice, the small sample size scenario is one crucial problem and a challenging issue for hyperspectral image classification. Fortunately, the structure information of materials, reflecting region of homogeneity in the spatial domain, offers an invaluable complement to the spectral information. Assuming some spatial regularity and locality of surface materials, it is reasonable to segment the image into different homogeneous parts in advance, called superpixel, which can be used to improve the classification performance. In this paper, a superpixel-based multitask learning framework has been proposed for hyperspectral image classification. Specifically, a set of 2-D Gabor filters are first applied to hyperspectral images to extract discriminative features. Meanwhile, a superpixel map is generated from the hyperspectral images. Second, a superpixel-based spatial-spectral Schroedinger eigenmaps (S4E) method is adopted to effectively reduce the dimensions of each extracted Gabor cube. Finally, the classification is carried out by a support vector machine (SVM)-based multitask learning framework. The proposed approach is thus termed Gabor S4E and SVM-based multitask learning (GS4E-MTLSVM). A series of experiments is conducted on three real hyperspectral image data sets to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed GS4E-MTLSVM approach. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed GS4E-MTLSVM is better than those of several state-of-the-art methods, while the computational complexity has been greatly reduced, compared with the pixel-based spatial-spectral Schroedinger eigenmaps method.